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What is Adderall?
Adderall is a medicine that contains four types of amphetamine salts. It helps treat narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. People also use Adderall as a cognitive or athletic performance enhancer. It belongs to the phenethylamine class of central nervous system stimulants.
The active salts in Adderall are 75% dextroamphetamine salts and 25% levoamphetamine salts.
Adderall is a widely used prescription medication in the United States. In the year 2016, with above 17 million prescriptions, Adderall was the 45th top prescribed medication in America.
What is Adderall Used for in adults?
Adderall manages the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood. The amphetamine enantiomers composing Adderall (dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine) alleviate ADHD symptoms by increasing neurotransmitter activities of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. These activities result in their interactions with hTAAR1 (human trace amine-associated receptor 1) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) in neurons.
According to research, 70% of the adults report therapeutic benefits using Adderall for ADHD. The rest 30% either have no benefits at all or have very little effectiveness in comparison to the side effects.
What is Adderall Used for Besides ADHD?
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder in children that is responsive to Adderall. The stimulant treats the symptoms of narcolepsy like daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy.
However, not approved by the FDA, people use Adderall as a performance enhancer and illegally for recreational purposes.
Adderall is a cognitive performance enhancer. When taken in low doses, it improves cognition, including inhibitory control, work memory, episodic memory, and some aspects of attention for normal healthy adults.
Adderall also acts as an athletic and mental performance enhancer, increasing alertness and endurance, muscle strength, athletic performance in anaerobic conditions, acceleration, and improves reaction time.
Adderall is a common drug for recreation among youngsters. It has a high potential for misuse that is notorious for snorting and injecting. High school students also use Adderall for study purposes.
Proper and Safe Adderall Dosage:
Consult your doctor for appropriate dosing instructions. Take Adderall as prescribed by a doctor.
Do not take Adderall in any case if you have heart disease, hypotension, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, or a history of drug abuse.
Do not give Adderall to children below three years of age.
Take the doses as prescribed, two to three times a day, at the interval of 4-6 hours. Take the first dose in the morning after waking up.
Avoid taking a late evening dose as it can cause sleeping problems or insomnia.
The doctor may stop Adderall dosage from time to time to check for the symptoms and side effects.
Regular blood, heart, and blood pressure check-ups are necessary while taking the dosages.
For the treatment of ADHD, initiate the dosages with 2.5 for children up to 5 years and 5 mg for children above 5 years, adolescents, and adults. Raise the dosages with increments of 2.5 mg every week.
For the treatment of narcolepsy, initiate the dosage with 5 mg per day. Carefully increase the daily dosages to achieve maximum therapeutic benefits. The per-day dosage for narcolepsy ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg given in divided doses according to the response and needs of the individual patient.
Side Effects of Adderall :
There are varied side effects of Adderall, but the amount of consumption determines the likelihood and intensity of the effects. Adderall can be more dangerous or life-threatening when used for recreational purposes than dosages used for therapeutic purposes.
Physical Effects :
- Cardiovascular side effects of Adderall include hypertension or hypotension, reduced flow of blood to hands and feet, or tachycardia.
- Sexual effects in males include frequent erections, erectile dysfunction, or prolonged erections.
- Gastrointestinal effects include pain in the abdomen, constipation, diarrhea, and nausea or vomiting.
- Other potential physical adverse effects include blurred vision, loss of appetite, excessive grinding of teeth, dry mouth, profuse sweating, nosebleed, tics, seizures, and weight loss.
Psychological Effects :
- The most common psychological effects at regular doses are increased apprehension, alertness, initiative, concentration, self-confidence, mood swings, insomnia, sociability, and wakefulness, and decreased sense of fatigue.
- Some less common psychological side effects include grandiosity, anxiety, obsessive behavior, change in libido, or restlessness.
Dependence and Abuse :
- Adderall is a common drug of abuse. It can cause psychological or physical dependence.
- Tolerance gradually leads to dependence that causes addiction.
- People generally abuse Adderall for weight loss, studying, recreation, athletic performance, and wakefulness.
Common Adderall Combinations :
The most common combination of Adderall contains four salts of amphetamine in different strengths and percentage:
Amphetamine aspartate monohydrate- 25% (12.5% levoamphetamine and 12.5% dextroamphetamine)
Amphetamine sulfate- 25% (12.5% levoamphetamine and 12.5% dextroamphetamine)
Dextroamphetamine saccharate- 25% (0% levoamphetamine and 25% dextroamphetamine)
Dextroamphetamine sulfate- 25% (0% levoamphetamine and 25% dextroamphetamine)