Codeine

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Description

Drug Introduction :

Codeine is an opioid analgesic to treat pain. It is generally useful in managing mild to acute degrees of pain. It can give more significant benefits in the combination of acetaminophen or ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. No pieces of evidence support the use of codeine for cough suppression in children and adults. It is an oral medication that typically starts working in about half an hour and reaches its peak effects in 1.5-2 hours. The therapeutic effects of codeine last for about 4-6 hours.

Pierre Jean Robiquet discovered codeine in the year 1832. It is one of the most common opioids in the world. The WHO’s list of Essential Medicines needed in a health system has codeine in it. It is a natural opiate and makes up about 2% of opium.

Licit Uses

Codeine treats mild to moderate pain. Some evidence also indicates that codeine may also be useful in treating cancer pain, but it can cause increased side effects in such conditions.

The AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) does not recommend the use of codeine for children due to its adverse effects. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has the age below 12 years old as a contraindication to codeine use.

Illicit Uses

Codeine is the first step to drug abuse. It is a gateway drug to other opiates abuse, such as morphine and even heroin. People generally abuse codeine by mixing it with alcohol or other substances.

Purple drank, a common recreational drug contains codeine syrup formulation. Codeine abuse is not only limited to ordinary people, but some celebrities also have their name popped up in codeine abuse.

Chemistry

The chemical formula of codeine is Morphinan-6-ol,7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt), trihydrate. Its molecular weight is 299.36, and the empirical formula is C18H21NO3.

Codeine pills contain codeine sulfate as an active ingredient in the strengths of 15 mg, 30 mg, or 60 mg. The inactive ingredients include pregelatinized starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, and added FDA approved colors.

Pharmacology

Codeine is an opiate. It is a partial agonist of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). It has a relatively weak affinity for MOR. Instead of directly acting on the MOR, the medication works as a prodrug of its primary active metabolite morphine, which is a more potent MOR agonist.

Codeine acts on the central nervous system to create analgesic effects. It metabolizes in the liver to produce a ten times more potent mu receptor agonist, morphine. Opioid receptors are coupled-G-protein receptors that both positively and negatively regulate synaptic transmission through signaling of downstream. Codeine or morphine binding to the mu receptor results in neuron hyperpolarization, leading to the inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmitters release, causing the effect of analgesia and high pain tolerance due to decreased neuronal excitability.

Administration Instructions

Read the medication guide or talk to your doctor about the proper method of administration after you buy codeine online:

  • Individualize the dosages of codeine for each patient
  • Adjust the dosing schedule according to the intensity of pain, medical condition, and response of a patient
  • Before administration, consider the prior use of opioid analgesics and their tolerance
  • Take into account the potency and daily dose of the last opioid used
  • Continually re-evaluate a patient regularly while on codeine therapy
  • Monitor patients for incidences of side effects and management of pain
  • For chronic treatment, especially for non-cancer patients, continually re-assess the appropriate use of codeine
  • It is an oral medication and hence taken by mouth
  • Take the codeine dosages exactly as prescribed by your doctor
  • The average adult dose is 15 mg to 60 mg taken 4-6 times per day as needed for pain relief
  • Titrate the initial dose based upon individual patient’s response
  • Adjust the dosage to the desired level of analgesia taking the least beneficial dosing
  • Tolerance to codeine can develop with continued use. Visit your prescribing doctor regularly while on the therapy
  • Never increase or decrease your codeine dosages by yourself
  • When you no longer require codeine treatment, do not quit it abruptly. Gradually taper the dosages to avoid codeine withdrawal symptoms in physically or psychologically dependent patients.

Side Effects of codeine :

It would be best if you weighed all the benefits of the medicine against its side effects before you order codeine online. Some common adverse effects of the medication include:

  • Constipation
  • Drowsiness

Less common side effects of codeine include:

  • Itching
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Miosis
  • Dry mouth
  • Urinary retention
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Dysphoria
  • Euphoria
  • Seizures
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Respiratory depression
  • Acute pancreatitis

Long-term effects of codeine include:

  • Apathy
  • Diminished or changed libido
  • Memory loss

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